Bangladesh is a country of south-central Asia with an area of 147,610 square kilometers (56,990 sq. mi). It is located in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent in the delta of the Padma and Jamuna rivers. Bangladesh is also familiar as the riverine country in the world. The official name of Bangladesh is the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The currency of Bangladesh is Taka, which is written as BDT. The land of Bengals is bordered with India to the north-east and west, Myanmar (Burma) to the south-east, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. Bangladesh ranked eighth as the most populated country in the world. Dhaka is the largest city and the capital of Bangladesh alongside the center point of economic, cultural, and political matters. Furthermore, Chittagong is the largest port and another business point of Bangladesh, also known as the business capital of Bangladesh. The area is covered with the largest mountain, hills as well as sea beach. Likewise, Cox’s Bazar is the largest sea beach in the world, in Chittagong Division, stretching 120 km of the beach area. Accordingly, Mongla Sea Port and Sundarbans situated in Khulna Division. Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world. Notably, Bengal Tiger and the Dotted Deer are the national pride of Bangladesh.
A Short History of Bangladesh:
East Bangladesh (later called East Pakistan) appeared in the history of countries around the world under the new name “People’s Republic of Bangladesh” in the early 1970s. This is the only language-based country in the world; it is called “Bangladesh”. This “Bengali” or Bengali has not appeared recently, but has a long history.
Civilization in the Bangladesh Delta began in the 3rd century BC about 4300 years ago. Infected modern civilization began in the early Sultanate era in Delhi in 1199. Then, Muslim rulers began to pay attention to Bangladesh, and the modern era began. The current area of Bangladesh was divided into India and Pakistan in 1947, then known as East Pakistan. Although a large number of Bengalis live in cross-border areas, that is, Western bracelets are part of India, in both areas, the main language is Bengali. Unfortunately, on February 23, 1948, the Pakistani government formed East Pakistan for the first time and announced the language of the new country. In Pakistan, only Urdu is the language of the country.
At that time the concept of ruler was absurd. The people of Bangladesh have never accepted such a proposal, so they have been protested by the Bengali-speaking people of East Pakistan. Due to civil strife, the oppressive path adopted by Pakistan’s rulers was resolved and new legislation was enacted. In response to this legislation, community tensions have become more and more serious. In the face of public opposition, the government announced that various mass gatherings and protests are illegal. Students from Dhaka University and other political activists united under the leadership of Bangaband. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman established the Student Action Committee. Under the leadership of the committee, a language movement was bombed on February 21, 1952. Many students of the protesters sacrificed their lives to deny the absurdity. The claim of the Pakistani ruler and the establishment of Bengali as one of the official languages killed in Pakistan that day have reached the final stage of the movement.
The founding father of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, made $2 million at the Ramna Racecourse in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on March 7, 1971. People gave lectures in Bangaband. The speech inspired the people of Bangladesh to prepare for the war of independence. On December 16, 1971, Bangladesh was born on the world map. This is Bengali, based on Bengali. By respecting all different beliefs and religions, the country can accommodate the country. In all religions. There is only one language called “Bengali”. The language is considered a product of the national youth lineage. The excellent language movement was eventually respected worldwide, and received due recognition by declaring the “International Mother Language Day” officially announced by UNESCO on November 17, 1999. On October 30, 2017, UNESCO delivered a speech on “World Memory Day”. “World” as a documentary heritage.
The speech inspired the people of Bangladesh to prepare for the war of independence. On December 16, 1971, Bangladesh was born on the world map. This is Bengali, based on Bengali. By respecting all different beliefs and religions, the country can accommodate the country. All religions. There is only one language called “Bengali”.
Bangladesh is considered a young country that is bleeding. The excellent language movement was eventually respected worldwide, and received due recognition by declaring the “International Mother Language Day” officially announced by UNESCO on November 17, 1999.
Bangladesh’s economy is now growing in a rapid and sustainable manner. Since independence in 1971, Bangladesh has made significant progress in the activities of its economic sector. By the end of the 1990s, the government’s economic policies had become more robust. For Bangladesh’s economic development, almost all industries have contributed, including clothing, pharmaceuticals, agriculture and shipbuilding.
Bangladesh is now the most viable business area among South Asian countries. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Bangladesh was one of the fastest growing economies in the world in 2016 and the second fastest growing economy. Since 2004, Bangladesh has achieved 6.5% growth in the past 10 years. These sectors have contributed to almost all sectors, including clothing, agricultural exports, shipbuilding, fish and seafood, jute and leather products, pharmaceuticals and steel exports. Bangladesh’s telecommunications and information technology industries are also growing rapidly due to large investments by overseas companies.
Not to mention, we cannot deny the contribution of private clothing to the development of the clothing industry. In the late 1990s, approximately 1.5 million people worked in the department. But now there are about 3.5 million workers working in this sector. From 2001 to 2002, export revenue has reached US$325 million, accounting for 52% of Bangladesh’s total exports. Bangladesh lags behind India in clothing exports in 2009. Bangladesh’s exports for the year amounted to US$2.66 billion. The most promising is that the export value in 2014 has increased to about 3.12 billion US dollars per month.
In the main industries, we can mention clothing, textiles and clothing. Knitwear (the second largest in the world), tea, ceramics, cement, leather, jute (the world’s largest producer), chemicals, fertilizers, shrimp processing, sugar, paper, electrical and electronics, medicine, shipbuilding, fishery, etc. The main minerals are natural gas, petroleum, coal, white clay, glass sand, stone, etc. Products imported from Bangladesh include wheat, fertilizer, petroleum products, cotton, edible oil, seeds, yarn, capital goods, capital machines, machine tools, electrical, electronics, power generation machinery, science, medical equipment, steel, steel, motor vehicles , Raw cotton, chemicals, etc. The main energy sources in Bangladesh are natural gas, firewood, liquid petroleum fuel, coal, hydroelectric power, solar power, biogas, etc.
Recently, some of the most significant potential industries are telecommunications, IT, pharmaceuticals and natural gas. These sectors have also contributed greatly to Bangladesh’s economy. Beximco Pharma has been listed on the London Stock Exchange. Countries such as China, Japan, India, the United States of America and Russia are also interested in investing in Bangladesh.
The contribution of Bangladesh’s major businessmen and the development of the environment and investment in all sectors have made Bangladesh’s economy develop rapidly. Economically, Bangladesh is currently the 41st country in the world and the fifth fastest growing country.
Most people in Bangladesh live on agriculture. Therefore, there is nowhere to deny its contribution. Although almost all our main crops and seasonal fruits are rice, jute, wheat, tobacco, beans, oil, spices, vegetables, jackfruit, banana, mango, lychee, papaya, guava, coconut, pineapple, etc., they All are grown in Bangladesh. However, rice is specifically mentioned. With Bangladesh’s fertile soil and water supply system, it is possible to harvest crops three times a year. We can also see its advantages. Bangladesh is the third largest country in rice production in the world, and even if it meets the country’s needs, we are still exporting rice. Therefore, the economic development of agricultural countries is so fast.
Bangladesh is located in the tropics, so the climate here is tropical monsoon climate. Due to the proximity of the ocean and the influence of the monsoon, neither winter nor summer is very serious. The summer here is warm and rainy, and the winter is dry. Although the Himalayas are not north of the Bangladesh border, it can protect Bangladesh from the snowflakes in northern winter. Therefore, the winter here is not long. In winter, the temperature in Bangladesh is between 11 and 29 degrees Celsius. However, in the north and northwest, this temperature is sometimes between 4°-9°C. In Bangladesh, Takurgaon, Panchach and Srimangar are the coldest places in winter.
Starting from the month of Baishakh, Bangladesh begins summer. According to the English calendar, it is in mid-April. In summer, the highest average temperature in Bangladesh is 40 degrees Celsius and the lowest temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. In some parts of the north and northwest of the country, temperatures sometimes range from 40 degrees Celsius to 45 degrees Celsius. At the beginning of the summer, the Kalboshak storm prevailed somewhere. There are cyclones and tide pits in the coastal area. During the rainy season, sea breezes flow from the south of the Bay of Bengal to the southwest. Also called monsoon. Due to the monsoon, Bangladesh caused heavy rainfall. But not all regions of the country have the same rainfall.
There is more rainfall in Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong City, Sylhet. On the other hand, in Rajshahi, Pabna and Kushtia, there is less rainfall. In autumn, Bangladesh also rains, but less than summer. During the rainy season, it exacerbates river erosion. Between April, May, October and November, Bangladesh has many hurricanes and waves.
Bangladesh’s climate is called equilibrium. In other words, the weather conditions are both favorable and unfavorable. Due to favorable weather, nature is also very friendly to agriculture and the environment. On the other hand, due to severe weather conditions, disasters such as storms, tides, floods, droughts, blacksmiths, tornadoes and extreme rainstorms have brought disaster to the people of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in South Asia. According to the 2011 census, Bangladesh’s population is estimated to be about 158 million, with a population growth rate of about 1.566%. Earlier, in the 1991 census, the population was 111.5 million, compared with 130.5 million in 2001. According to World Bank estimates, Bangladesh has a population of about 160 million, and according to the World Population Reference, the population in 2010 was Bangladesh. 164 million. However, according to preliminary results of the 2011 Population and Housing Census, Bangladesh has a population of approximately 142 million. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a certain number of people in Bangladesh. By 2050, the country’s population is estimated to be twice that of 2001.
The majority of Bangladesh’s population (98%) is Bangladeshi, and the rest (2%) are tribes, minors, ethnicities and communities, and non-Bengali Muslims. In 2001, the population of tribes, ethnic minorities, ethnic groups and communities was 1.4 million, accounting for approximately 1.13% of the total population. According to the 2001 census, Bangladesh’s Muslim population accounted for 89.7% of the total population, while Hinduism accounted for 9.2%. Buddhists, Christians and other religions make up 1.2% of the total population. In 2011, the population density of Bangladesh was 964 per square kilometer, of which it was 839 in 2001. Currently, about a quarter of the population lives in urban areas. During the ten years from 1991 to 2001, the annual growth rate of the urban population was 3.15%. From 2005 to 2010, the number increased by 3.5%. [Source: Banglapedia]
Bangladesh follows most of the economic and socio-economic indicators of South Asia. Over the past two decades, Bangladesh has made unprecedented progress in economic growth and social development indicators. After the 1990s, Bangladesh’s overall growth and development was much higher than the average of developing countries. The poverty rate has reached half. Bangladesh is also capable of defeating other developing countries, even neighboring India, on most social indicators such as population, average life expectancy, infant mortality, girls’ school enrollment, capable couples and acceptable birth rate. Control System. The contribution rate of girls in the country’s economy has also greatly increased.
According to World Bank data, per capita income in low-income countries is now $528. The average income in South Asia is $176. Bangladesh has caught up with South Asia at a price of nearly $4,000. [Source: Glory of Uncertainty: India and its Contradictions, Amartya Sen and Daily Prothom-Alo, January 1, 2014]
Soon after independence, the people of the country should live an average of 46 years, now it is 69 years on average. But the average age in South Asia is 65 years old. In low-income countries, 70 deaths per 1,000 newborns, 52 in South Asia and 35 in Bangladesh. Girls’ enrolment rate is the highest in Bangladesh. Bangladesh only eliminates malnutrition among children under 5 years of age.
Tradition and Culture of Bangladesh:
Bangladesh has hundreds of years of history and tradition. Bangladesh is one of the countries with rich cultural heritage. Geographical environment, weather, production methods, etc. play a special role in the formation of culture. As a result, different countries have different cultures. Similarly, in a country, different types of culture can be developed. Therefore, culture is not a problem of stagnation, but change. Not all cultures will change, but they will. For a long time, some major aspects of culture have remained unchanged. Bangladesh’s main food and fish are still part of the country’s eating habits. Jaari, Shari, Baul, Bhawaiya, Bhatiyali, Murshidi, Barmasya, Ghamhari, etc. are different regional songs that tell the laughter and cry of the Bangladeshi people. In village fairs, events such as Pala gaan, jatrapala, kabigan, kirtanagan, murshidi gan, etc. have maintained our rural and past traditions. On the other hand, urban culture develops according to the city’s geographical environment, occupation and mechanical life. With the classical culture of Bangladesh, modern architecture and many types of cars have entered here. Globalization has a greater impact on city life.
In Bangladesh, the international airports are Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet, and the domestic airports are Jessore, Cox’s Bazar, Sidepur, Rajshahi and Barisal.
The river ports are Dhaka, Chandhpur, Barisal, Khulna, Bagbari, Sharishabari, Narayanganj, Bhairab Bazar and Ashuganj.
The land ports in Bangladesh are Benapole, Teknaf, Banglabandha, Barsara, Bagli, Charagaon, Sonamasjid, Nakugaon, Bilonia, Hilli, Darshana, Birol, Burimari, Tamabil, Sutarkandi, Haluaghat, Akhaura, Bibirbazar, Borax, Gobrakora.
The most visited tourist attraction in Bangladesh is Cox’s bazaar-the world’s largest and longest sea beach, Sendalban-the home of the Royal Bengal Tiger and the world’s largest mangrove forest, the hilly area of Chittagong City ( The former Chittagong hills), Kuakata and Parky beaches, Chittagong lakes in Fowey, Dulahajra safari park, Sitakund Echo Park, Dhaka, Paharpur, Moinamati, Mohastangar’s centuries-old historical sites and Sylhet’s eyelash green tea garden, River life, etc.